Grant Sanders
Period 1

8.1 Overview of Digestion
1. Name and describe the three processes that occur during the digestive process.
Ingestion- occurs when the mouth takes in food/ Digestion- Either a mechanical or a chemical digestion/ Movement of GI tract contents along the digestive tract is very important in order for the tract to fulfill its other functions.
2. What are the four layers of the GI tract? Associate an illness with each of the layers. Describe the illness. Mucosa- diverticulitis occurs when pouches become infected or inflamed. Submucosa- inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Muscularis- irritable bowel syndrome is when contractions of the wall cause abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. Serosa- appendicitis is when your appendix bursts.

8.2 The First Part of the Digestive Tract
Define the following vocab...
Palate- The roof of the mouth
salivary glands-Gland associated with the mouth that secretes saliva.
dental carries- Tooth decay that occurs when bacteria within the mouth metabolize sugar and give off acids that erode teeth; a cavity.
Periodontitis- Inflammation of the periodontal membrane that lines tooth sockets, causing loss of bone and loosening of teeth.
Pharynx- Portion of the digestive tract between the mouth and the esophagus that serves as a passageway for food, and also for air on its way to the trachea.
Esophagus-Muscular tube for moving swallowed food from the pharynx to the stomach.
Glottis- Opening for airflow in the larynx.
Epiglottis- Structure that covers the glottis during the process of swallowing.
Peristalsis-Wavelike contractions that propel substances along a tubular structure, such as the esophagus.
Sphincters- Muscle that surrounds a tube and closes or opens the tube by contracting and relaxing.
Diaphragm-Dome- shaped horizontal sheet of muscle and connective tissue that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.

3. Describe the mecahnical and chemical digestion that occurs in the mouth.
Mechanical digestion- occurs when our teeth chew food into pieces convienient for swallowing. Chemical digestion- salivary amylase begins the process of digesting starch.

4. What ordinarily prevents food from entering the nose or entering the trachea when you swallow? The soft palate moves back to close off the nasal passages, and the trachea moves up under the epiglottis to cover the glottis.

Health Focus Heartburn (p148)
5. What causes the burning sensation associated with heartburn?
Acid reflux is the burning sensation associated with heartburn.
6. What is GERD? How is it different from heartburn?
When heartburn or acid reflux becomes a chronic condition, the patient is diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease.
7. Describe two ways drugs treat GERD.
Neutralize stomach acid and reduce acid production.
8. Describe ways to avoid heatrburn that do not involve drugs.
Diet and excersice are two ways to avoid heartburn that don’t involve drugs.