8.1 Overview of Digestion
1. Describe in you words the processes that occur in the digestive system (ingestion, digestion, movement, absorption, elimination)

- Ingestion occurs when the mouth takes in food. Digestion can either be mechanical or chemical. The machanical digestion occurs when food is divided into pieces or cut up before ingestion. Mechanical digestion occurs in the mouth and stomach. On the other hand, Chemical digestion begins in teh mouth but isn't finished until it reaches the small intestine. Movement is really important because without movement the food could't be pased along from one organ to another. Absorption is when molecules cross the wall of the GI tract and enter the cells lining tract. This is when the food and nutrients enters the blood and it delivers the nutrients to the cells. Elimination is when the food that cannot be digested is removed from the body from the anus. When you defecate - you are removing food that couldn't be digested.

8.2 First Part of the Digestive Tract
1. Describe the MECHANICAL and CHEMICAL digestion that occurs in the mouth.
- Mechanical digestion can occur when the teeth chews food into pieces small enough to swallow.
- The chemical digestion occurs and breaks down complex molecules into simple structures.

2. What is heartburn?
- Heartburn occurs when some of the stomach's contents escape into the esophagus. Burning pains in the chest occur when the stomach's contents scape into the esophagus.

3. What is a dental cavity? (What causes it?)
- A dental cavity is when bacteria in the mouth metabolizes sugar and gives off acids. This erodes teeth ( teeth begin to decay).

8.3 Stomach and Small Intestine
1. What are the functions of the stomach and how is the wall of the stomach modified to perform these functions?
- The stomach stores food, initiates the digestion of protein, and controls the movemnt of chyme into the small intestine. The oblique layer of the stomach lets the stomach stretch. It also lets the stomach mechanically break down fod into small fragments that are mixes with gastric juices.

2. What are the functions of the small intestine and how is the wall of the small intestine modified to perform these functions?
- The small intestine has enzymes to digest all types of food, primarily carboydrates, proteins and fats.
- The small intestine's wall absorbs the molecules, sugars, amino acids, fatty adics, and glycerol. All of these are products of the digestive process.

3. What is lactose intolerance? What causes it and what are the symptoms?
- When the brush border enzyme called lactose cannot digest lactose, which is the primary sugar in milk. diarrhea, gas, bloating, abdominal cramps occur after drinking milk or dairy products.
8.4 Three accessory organs.
1. What are the three main accessory organs and how do they assist the digestive process?
- The three main accessory organs are the pancreas, Liver, and gallbladder. The pancreas produces juice called pancreatic juice, which breaks down food. The liver removes substances that are poisonous from the blood and detoxifies them. The liver removes iron and the vitamins AEKD and b12 from the blood and stores them. The liver also creates bile. it helps regulate the quantity of cholesterol in the blood. The gallbladder stores that bile.
2. What is a gallstone?
- They form when liquid stored in the gallbladder hardens into pieces of stone like materials.

3. What is hepatitis?
- An inflammation of the liver.

4. What is cirrhosis?
- A chronic disease of the liver. irreversible injury th iver tissue, caused by frequent alcohol consumption.

8.5 Large Intestine
1. What is the function of the large intestine?
- It absorbs water, that prevents dehydration of the body. It doesn't produce any digestion enzymes and it does not absorb any nutrients. It also absorbs vitamins produced by bacteria call the intestinal flora.

2. Briefly describe the disorders of the large intestine: diarrhea, constipation, diverticulosis, hemorrhoids, IBS, IBD, polyps, cancer.
- Diarrhea is an infection of the lower intestinal tract and nervous stimulation. Constipation is when feces dry and become hard. Diverticulosis are little pouches of muscoa that have pushed out through weak spots in the muscularities. Hemorrhoids is a chronic constipation when the enlarger and inflaned blood vessels at the anus. IBS: it stands for irritable bowl syndrome. IBS id when you mucles contract each other powerfully without its normal coordination. IBD: it stands for inflammatory bowl disease. It effect the large intestine and rectum. Polyps is a small growth arising from the epithelial lining. Cancer is caused by dietary fat which increases in bile secretion. Intestinal bacteria convert bile alts to substances that promote development of cancer.