1) p. 31 Describe the structure of a phospholipid (insert an image). Indicate the parts that hydrophillic and the parts that are hydrophobic.
In a phospholipid the head is hydrophilic and the tails are hydrophobic

(2) p. 31 How do phospholipids arrange themselves in water?
The heads face outwards into the water and the tails face inwards and make a hydrophobic center

(3) p. 46 Describe the fluid-mosaic model of a membrane. (insert an image) Which components are the fluid, and why? Which components are the mosaic, and why?
At body temperature the phospholipid bilayer is a liquid, it has the consistency of olive oil; and the proteins are able to change their position by moving laterally. The fluid-mosaic model, a working description of membrane structure, says that the protein molecules form a shifting patter within the phospholipid bilayer

(4) p. 46 What is the function of the membrane? How does the structure of the membrane suit that structure?
The plasma membrane keeps a cell intact, it allows only certain molecules and ions to enter and exit the cytoplasm freely therefore the plasma membrane is said to be selectively permeable. Things that pass through the cell are utilizing protein channels called aquaporins.

(5) p. 46 Why is the membrane considered selectively permeable?
The plasma membrane keeps a cell intact, it allows only certain molecules and ions to enter and exit the cytoplasm freely therefore the plasma membrane is said to be selectively permeable.

(6) p. 46 What is diffusion? Give an example.
Diffusion is the random movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration, until they are equally distributed. Remember that aroma of chocolate chip cookies permeated the house and that wonderful smell greated calvin as he opened the door. The smell filled the house because the cooies gave off gaseous molecules that moved from where they were concentrated to all the rooms of the house until they were equally distributed.

(7) p. 46 What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a plasma membrane. Osmosis involves water and a solute that cannot readily cross the plasma membrane.

(8) p.46 How do isotonic, hyptonic, and hypertonic solutions differ and how does each affect cells? (insert an image)
isotonic solution is the same solute concentration as in the cell
hypotonic solution has a lower solute concentration than in the cell
hypertonic solution has a higher solute concentration than in a cell
these are describing the solutions concentration relative to the cell. Isotonic does nothing because there is no osmotic pressure, hypotonic brings solute out of the cell and hypertonic makes stuff enter the cell

(9) pp. 46-47 What is the difference between passive and active transport?
Passive transport is when a molecule is moving with the normal direction, that is from higher concentration to lower
Active transport is when a molecule is moving contrary to the normal direction that is from lower to higher concentration
(10) pp. 46-47 What are the various ways substances can enter and exit cells? (diffusion, facilitated transport, active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis) Which are passive and which are active ways of crossing the cell?
The ways they can enter and exit the cell is through the protein carriers, they are transported by the protein carriers active transport is an actitive way of crossing the cell. During endocytis a portion of the cell vaginates and exocytis is when it pushes it out of the cell
(11) p. 47 What is the difference between exocytosis and phagocytosis?
Exocytosis is when the cell pushes something out of it by the cell membrane
Phagocytosis some white blood cells take in diseases by endocytosis.
(12) p. 54 What is the overall formula of cellular respiration? What are the reactants and what are the products?
After blood transports glucose and oxygen to cells, cellular respiration, which breaks down glucose to carbon dioxide and water, begins, three pathways are involved in the breakdown of glucose, and they are called glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. The electron transport chain. These metabolic pathways allow the energy within a glucose molecule to be released slowly, so that atp can be produced gradually.

(13) pp. 54-55 Which molecule captures the energy released from glucose? How many molecules are produced per glucose?
Glucose enters a cell from the bloodstream by facilitated tranpornt. The three main pathways of cellular respiration all produce atp glucose included but the most produced by the electron transport chain. It makes 32 atp per glucose

(14) p. 55 What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration?
The presence of oxyen makes the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain aerobic.


(15) p. 56 What is fermentation? How many ATP are produced per glucose molecule?
Fermentation is an anaerobic process meaning that it does not require oxygen. When oxygen is not available to cells, he electron transport chain soon becomes inoperative because oxygen is not present to accet electrons. It only produces two atp
(16) p.56 What is the waste product of yeast fermentation?
The waste product is lactic acid
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